为什么中国在无数次分裂后能够在新的朝代下重新统一,而欧洲却不能?

05-14 310 37974 雨天不打伞
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Why was China able to reunite under new dynastiescountless times after breaking apart but Europe wasn't?

为什么中国在无数次分裂后能够在新的朝代下重新统一,而欧洲却不能?



提问:

WhatAnArtist 澳大利亚
After the fall of the WesternRoman Empire in 476, there were arguably only three times when Europe (or atleast most of it) was reunited under the sovereignty of a single monarch -Charlemagne in the 9th century, Charles V in the 16th century, and Napoleon inthe 19th century. Obviously none of them quite reached the extent of theRomans, but they came pretty close at the height of their power. But inevitablytheir empires fell apart and Europe was fragmented before truly reuniting theempire of old. Yet the history of China shows an almost unbelievable trend ofreuniting after disaster and collapse from almost two thousand years. Were thevarious regions of China simply closer in culture, religion and language toeach other than the various European states were?

自公元476年西罗马帝国覆灭后,欧洲(或者至少大部分欧洲)只有三次在一个君主的治下实现统一:9世纪的查理曼大帝、16世纪的查理五世和19世纪的拿破仑。很明显,他们都没有达到罗马人的高度,但他们在权力的顶峰时却非常接近罗马人。但不可避免的是,他们的帝国瓦解了,也因此欧洲变得四分五裂,再也没能实现古罗马帝国的统一。然而,在经历了近两千年的灾难和崩溃之后,中国的历史呈现出了一种几乎令人难以置信的统一趋势。难道仅仅是因为中国的各个地区在文化、宗教和语言上比欧洲各国更相近吗?
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回答:
HackneyedScribe
There are a variety oftheories.
1. The Chinese language:Chinese writing do not depend on the alphabet, how the word is written have nodirect bearing on how the word is pronounced (albeit this is not the caseindirectly). This means there is greater ability for the Chinese language toaccommodate significant differences in regional dialects. Even if two groups ofpeople couldn't understand each other by speaking to each other, they couldstill understand each other through their written language. Language becomes aunifying factor.
2. The Yellow River: Otherwiseknown as China's sorrow. This great river that so much of the populationdepends on changes course when left to its own devices. Massive flooding andfamine ensues whenever this happens. Expensive construction projects need to bebuilt to insure that the river stays its course. This gives greater incentivefor the various regions to pool their resources.
3. Steppe Nomads: Similar inconcept to point 2. The most populated areas of ancient China shared arelatively close and long border with steppe nomads with few natural defenses.This meant sedentary states had a more serious common foe besides each other.There is also the reverse of this theory which states that it was because Chinaoften unified that made eastern steppe nomads to often form powerfulconfederations. Only by forming powerful confederation would they be able tomatch the power of their southern sedentary neighbors.
4. Regional spending: The Handynasty directly collects taxation and spends the tax money locally. The Romanempire allocates most of its government revenue (excluding military upkeep and governmentpersonnel upkeep) to Italy. Regions have less incentive to stay a part of theempire if the tax money they provide to the empire isn't being spent on theirown regions.
Population in top tier Hancities (assuming 5 people per family)​
1) Chang'an: 404,000​
2) Chengdu: 381,280​
3) Maoling: 305,435​
4) Luoyang: 264,195​
5) Lu: 260,000​
6) Changling: 250,285​
7) Yanling: 245,505​
8) Wan: 237,735​
9) Yangdi: 208,250​
10) Pengcheng: 200,950​
Population in top tier Romancities​
1) Rome: 1,250,000​
2) Alexandria: 600,000​
3) Antioch: 500,000​
4) Carthage: 400,000​
5) Ephesus: 350,000​
6) Apamea: 200,000​
7) Pergamon: 150,000​
8) Lugdunum: 100,000​
9) Jerusalem: 100,000​
10) Cesarea: 100,000​
ltaaaTxt

汉朝顶级城市人口(假设每户5人)
1)长安:404000
2)成都:381280
3)茂陵:305435
4)洛阳:264195
5)鲁:260000
6)长陵:250285
7)燕岭:245505
8)宛:237735
9)扬地:208250
10)彭城:200950

罗马顶级城市的人口
1)罗马:1250000
2)亚历山大:600000
3)安提阿:500000
4)迦太基:400000
5)以弗所:350000
6)阿帕美:200000
7)帕加马:150000
8)卢迪南:100000
9)耶路撒冷:100000
10)凯撒勒雅:100000

至于我自己的理论
5. 自我实现预言【译注:一个心理学理论,请各位百度了解,因为实在不知道咋解释,大概就是大家都想统一,所以最终一定会统一】:秦汉帝国统一中国后,统一中国本身就成为一个目标。
6. 人口分布:古代人口的很大一部分集中在一个相对较小的区域。无论谁控制了该地区,都将获得巨大的人力和产业优势。

Bart Dale
Even having a common languagedidn't guarantee the unity of Germany and Austria, or that of America andBritain, or US and Canada, or the medi Italian city states so I am not surethat the Chinese writing is a complete answer.
Although the Chinese writinghelped, in the past only a relatively small percentage of the population couldread and write, and many business transactions were done face to face.
Even if two groups of peoplecouldn't understand each other by speaking to each other, they could stillunderstand each other through their written language. Language becomes aunifying factor.
But was the resources tomaintain the require the resources of all the regions? While the center ofChina was along the Yellow river, I don't think all of it was. Regions thatdidn't benefit directly from the Yellow River might resent the expense of itsupkeep.
But it would promote largerunits that were easier to reconnect and forge into a common empire. I can seethat playing a major role, if not the whole answer.
Also, would not the YellowRiver provide an easy transport path, which would promote interconnections. Nota factor by itself, but it could aid unity?
The Romans had a lot ofinfrastructure projects throughout their empire, roads and bridges, lighthouses,baths, aquaducts, and a variety of other items, so I am not certain this istrue.​
​Rome did suck up a lot moreresources of the Empire than the Chinese capitals did to maintain, but theother too cities like Alexandria were big before they became part of theEmpire, and were so due to regional support and trade.​
​And when the Roman Empire didbreak up, it was because regions were overrun by outsiders, not so much becauseof concentration of spending. Britain ceased to be a part of the empire becauseit was abandoned by the Empire, and was later overrun by outside barbarians.
An unified Europe was the goalof a number of famous European leaders, like Napoleon, and Charlemange, butthey did not achieve it.
I haven't seen data thatproves China was more urbanized than the Roman empire. The data does seem toshow population that is actually spread out fairly uniformly in some regionsand not too far from rivers that could act as transport routes. Control therivers, and you control the population

即使有共同的语言也不能保证德国和奥地利、或美国和英国、或美国和加拿大、或中世纪的意大利城邦的统一,所以我不确定中国文字统一是不是一个完整的答案。
虽然中文书写统一有所帮助,但在过去,只有相对较小的一部分人能够读写,许多商业交易都是面对面进行的。
即使两组人不能通过交谈来理解对方,他们仍然可以通过他们的书面语言来理解对方。所以语言可能统一的因素之一。

关于黄河,维持所需的资源是所有区域的资源吗?虽然中国的中心在黄河沿岸,但我不认为所有的中心都在黄河沿岸。没有直接受益于黄河的地区可能会对黄河的维护费用感到不满。
但它将促进更大范围的统一,更容易重新连接和锻造成一个共同的帝国。我可以看到这在其中扮演着重要的角色,如果这不是答案的全部的话。

ltaaaTxt

Mrbsct 美国
Culture and language. Eversince the Warring States, factions had a rather similar cultural principles.Europe was united by religion, but after the Fall of Western Rome, nobodywanted to go out and conquer besides the Eastern Roman Empire. The Popepromoted peace in West Europe, so nobody would have be at eachother's throats.
Now the Hasburg Kingdoms,controlling Austria, the Holy Roman Empire, Netherlands and Spain did attemptto to make Europe under a Catholic Empire but that failed.

文化和语言。自战国以来,各派系就有相当相似的文化原则。欧洲因宗教而统一,但在西罗马帝国灭亡后,除了东罗马帝国,没有人想要去征服世界。教皇促进了西欧的和平,所以没有人会互相残杀。
如今,控制奥地利的哈斯堡王国、神圣罗马帝国、荷兰和西班牙都曾试图将欧洲置于天主教帝国统治之下,但都以失败告终。

Ruckeroberung2083 匈牙利
Europe is geographicallyfragmented, much moreso than China - it is easier to conquer and rule thelatter from a central base of power than the former.

欧洲在地理上是分散的,比中国要分散得多——从中央权力基础上征服和统治中国比从中央权力基础上征服和统治欧洲要容易得多。

Olleus 英国
That's part of the answer. Orrather, shows we we're asking the wrong question. The Roman empire andantiquity before it wasn't centred around Europe, but around the Mediterranean.In part, because it is vastly easier to trade across a relatively benign seathan across mountains and forests.
So instead we should probablybe asking: "Why was China able to reunite under new dynasties countlesstimes after breaking apart but the Mediterranean basin wasn't?"
And, in this case, I thinkreligion is one of the principal factors. Christianity and paganism didn't playalong too well or too badly, but Christianity and Islam were never going towork peacefully together. Even the different heresies of Christianity wouldn'twork together and caused the East to lose vast amounts of importantterritories. China didn't have this problem. It was more culturally homogeneous(as stated above), and the differences were more reconcilable. Buddhism, Taoismand Confucianism were not as violently opposed to each others existence asChristianity and Islam were to each other, and to their own internal divisions.

楼上的,这只是部分答案。或者说,这表明我们问错了问题。之前的罗马帝国和古罗马、古希腊、古埃及时期不是以欧洲为中心,而是以地中海为中心。部分原因是,在相对温和的海域进行贸易要比在山脉和森林之间容易得多。
因此,我们或许应该:“为什么中国在无数次分裂之后能够在新王朝的统治下重新统一,而地中海地区却不能?”

在这种情况下,我认为宗教是主要因素之一。基督教和异教相处得不是很好,也不是很差,但基督教和伊斯兰教永远不会和平共处。即使是基督教的不同派别也无法合作,导致东方失去了大量的重要领土。中国没有这个问题。它在文化上更加同质(如上所述),而且差异更容易调和。佛教、道教和儒家并不像基督教和伊斯兰教那样激烈地反对彼此的存在,也不像基督教和伊斯兰教那样内部分裂成多个派系并相互抵触。

ltaaaTxt

Emperor of Wurttemburg 43 美国
Europe had obstacles tocentralization the Chinese didn't have.
1)Decentralization, where theKings ended up ceding so much power to smaller land owners they becamedependent on their support despite being the titular King. It was in theinterests of most powers that be to not let a Roman Empire rise again and for alarger King to make any large acquisitions of land he needed support.
2)The Church also shared thesame interest with the smaller lords of there not being a strong centralauthority. While supportive of the Carolingian Empire, the Carolingians helpedthe Church out, afterwards the Church and most powerful secular King whether itto be the Holy Roman Emperor or the King of France tended to be in a powerstruggle. The Church also made it hard to justify fighting other Christians andis why we see very few large scale wars of expansion(compare that to the afterthe Reformation where we got one every generation until Napoleon), wars tendedto be over settling competing claims for a title not outright conquest thoughsometimes nonsensical claims were a pretext. The most successful empires of theMiddle Ages not just Charles V but the smaller ones usually didn't conqueranything rather they just inherited a bunch of stuff due to their own marriagesor their relatives marriages. This is part of why European nobles jumped at thechance to go Crusading, after centuries of relative peace, it was a chance atviolence that the Church said wouldn't put them in hell.
It was in simply everyone'sinterest that the Roman Empire not be restored except those aspiring to do therestoring. Most people with a moderate amount of power were just really happywith the way things were, the Church dominated society, feudal lords and evenKnights got to play King to an extent(they'd have their castle, they'd have thelocal church and they'd have people who lived on their land making their food,wars were relatively rare, it would be very easy to delude yourself intothinking you were the center of the universe because for practical purposes youwere, now imagine hundreds of these people). This didn't even really end upwith the Middle Ages(at least on a larger scale), even when the Middle Agesended and a system of great powers came to pass, everyone still ganged up onthe most powerful one that could possibly dominate Europe to prevent a unifiedEurope. Up until the United Nations and(depending on the party, the League ofNations), it's arguable the main reason there was an international system wasspecifically to prevent a Roman Empire from rising again and seems to be a throwbackto the Middle Ages and the feudal lords all dragging each others ambitions downon a larger scale.

欧洲在中央集权方面遇到了中国人没有遇到的障碍。
1)权力下放,国王最终将如此多的权力割让给较小的土地所有者,尽管名义上是国王,但国王还是依赖于他们的支持。不让一个罗马帝国再次崛起,而是让一个更上位的国王进行任何他需要支持的大规模土地兼并,都符合大多数地方势力的利益。

2)教会也与那些没有强大中央权威的小领主们有着同样的利益。虽然获得卡洛林王朝的支持,帮助教会走出困境,但后来教会和最强大的世俗国王不管是神圣罗马帝国的皇帝还是法国的国王都陷入了权力斗争。教会也很难证明进攻其他基督徒的合法性,这就是为什么我们看到很少有大规模的扩张战争(相比之下,宗教改革后,我们每一代都在混战直到拿破仑征服欧洲),而且战争往往只是解决矛盾争端的手段(尽管有时开战的借口荒谬可笑)而不是为了彻底征服一片土地。中世纪最成功的帝国不仅是查理五世的帝国,还包括规模较小的帝国,这些小帝国通常没有征服任何地方而是通过他们皇室自己的婚姻或亲戚的婚姻继承了很多地方。这是为什么欧洲贵族有机会去参加十字军的原因之一,因为经过几个世纪的努力后欧洲已经相对和平,这是一个释放暴力的机会,教会说这(十字军东征)不会导致他们下地狱。

所以除了那些有志于此的人之外,罗马帝国(欧洲统一)无法再现,这完全符合每个人的利益。大多数拥有适度权力的人对现状非常满意,教会统治社会,封建领主甚至骑士都在一定程度上扮演国王(他们有自己的城堡,他们有当地教会而且他们有人在他们的土地上生产食物,战争相对罕见,所以基于现实原因当时的人们很容易欺骗自己认为自己是宇宙的中心)。这甚至没有真正结束于中世纪(至少在更大的范围内),即使中世纪结束了,一个强国体系形成了,每个人仍然会联合起来对付最有可能统治欧洲的强国,以阻止一个统一的欧洲。直到国际联盟和联合国诞生,主要原因(有争议)是国际体系专门阻止另一个罗马帝国再次崛起,这似乎可以追溯到中世纪,所有封建领主都在阻碍彼此领土扩张的野心。
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