富裕国家正在享受空前的就业热潮 - 资本主义批评家尚未注意到这一点
2019-08-18 geluman 11887
原文地址
原文地址:https://www.economist.com/leaders/2019/05/23/the-rich-world-is-enjoying-an-unprecedented-jobs-boom
正文翻译
原创翻译:龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com 翻译:geluman 转载请注明出处
论坛地址:http://www.ltaaa.com/bbs/thread-488291-1-1.html

The rich world is enjoying an unprecedented jobs boom
Capitalism’s criticsare yet to notice

富裕国家正在享受空前的就业热潮——资本主义批评家尚未注意到这一点



Everyonesays work is miserable. Today’s workers, if they are lucky enough toescape the gig economy and have a real job, have lost control over their lives.They are underpaid and exploited by unscrupulous bosses. And they face a precariousfuture, as machines threaten to make them unemployable.

每个人都说工作是痛苦的,如今的工作者如果能足够幸运地摆脱零工经济并且获得一份真正的工作的话,他们就失去了对生活的支配权。他们不仅收入低还受无良老板盘剥。随着机器逐渐使其失去雇佣价值,他们还面临着不确定的未来。



The rich-world jobsboom is partly cyclical—the result of a decade of economic stimulus andrecovery since the great recession. But it also reflects structural shifts.Populations are becoming more educated. Websites are efficient at matching vacanciesand qualified applicants. And ever more women work. In fact women account foralmost all the growth in the rich-world employment rate since 2007. That hassomething to do with pro-family policies in Europe, but since 2015 the trend isfound in America, too. Last, reforms to welfare programmes, both to make themless generous and to toughen eligibility tests, seem to have encouraged peopleto seek work.

发达国家的就业热潮在一定程度上是周期性的,是自从经济大萧条以来长达十年的经济刺激和恢复的结果。但这也反映了结构性的转变。人口的受教育程度正在提高,网站在匹配空职与合格求职者方面更加高效,并且有更多的妇女参加工作。事实上,自2007年以来妇女就业几乎占据了富裕国家就业增长的全部。这和欧洲的家庭支持政策有关,但是自2015年以来美国同样呈就业增长趋势。最后,福利计划的调整不仅使得福利减少而且加强了资格测试。这似乎鼓励了人们去寻找工作。

Thanks to the jobsboom, unemployment, once the central issue of political economy, has all butdisappeared from the political landscape in many countries. It has beenreplaced by a series of complaints about the quality and direction of work.These are less tangible and harder to judge than employment statistics. Themost important are that automation is destroying opportunities and that work,though plentiful, is low-quality and precarious. “Our jobs market is beingturned into a sea of insecurity,” says Jeremy Corbyn, leader of Britain’sLabour Party.

由于就业热潮,曾一度处于政治经济议题中心的失业问题已经彻底地从许多国家的政坛中消失了。其位置已经被一系列关于工作质量和方向的抱怨所取代。这些事物与就业统计数据相比更加不明确和难以评判。最重要的是,自动化技术正在消灭就业机会,尽管工作机会很多,但质量低下且不稳定。英国工党(LabourParty)领袖杰里米科尔宾表示:“我们的就业市场正变成一片不安全的海洋。”



As for precariousness,in America traditional full-time jobs made up the same proportion of employmentin 2017 as they did in 2005. The gig economy accounts for only around 1% ofjobs there. In France, despite recent reforms to make labour markets more flexible,the share of new hires given permanent contracts recently hit an all-time high.The truly precarious work is found in southern European countries like Italy,and neither exploitative employers nor modern technology is to blame. The culpritis old-fashioned law that stitches up labour markets, locking out young workersin order to keep insiders in cushy jobs.

至于不稳定性,2017年美国传统全职工作在就业中所占的比例与2005年持平。零工经济仅占就业岗位的1%左右。法国尽管为了使劳动力市场更加灵活而在最近对其进行了一些改革,但获得永久合同的新雇员所占比例在最近创下历史新高。真正不稳定的工作是在意大利等南欧国家发现的,这既不能归咎于剥削型雇主,也不能归咎于现代技术。罪魁祸首是陈旧的法律,它封闭了劳动力市场,将年轻工人拒之门外,以便让内部人员保住安逸的工作。

Elsewhere, the knock-onbenefits of abundant work are becoming clear. As firms compete for workersrather than workers for jobs, average wage growth is rising, pushing upworkers’ share of the pie—albeit not as fast as the extent of the boom mighthave suggested. Tight labour markets lead firms to fish for employees in neglectedpools, including among ex-convicts, and to boost training amid skillsshortages. American wonks fretted for years about how to shrinkdisability-benefit rolls. Now the hot labour market is doing it for them.Indeed, one attraction of the jobs boom is its potential to help solve socialills without governments having to do or spend very much.

在其他地方,大量工作所附带的好处正变得越来越明显。由于企业争夺的是工人而不是工人争夺工作,平均工资正在上升,工人在馅饼中所占的份额也在上升——尽管速度没有就业热潮所表现出的那么迅速。紧张的劳动力市场导致公司在被忽视的人群中寻找员工,包括有前科的人,并加强对技能不足的员工的培训。多年来,美国的书呆子们一直在为如何缩减伤残抚恤金名单而烦恼。现在火热的劳动力市场正在为他们做这件事。事实上,就业热潮的一个吸引力在于,它有可能帮助解决社会问题而无需政府出手或支出太多。



The jobs boom will notlast for ever. Eventually, a recession will kill it off. Meanwhile, it deservesa little appreciation.

就业热潮不会永远持续下去。最终,经济衰退会将其扼杀。与此同时,它也应得一点赞赏。

This article appeared in the Leaders sectionof the print edition under the headline"The great jobs boom"

这篇文章刊登在印刷版的“领导者”一栏,标题是“大就业热潮”
评论翻译
收藏译文