Tom McGregor Quora 2019年最新回答合集(三)
2019-08-21 yjl0518 17838
原创翻译:龙腾网 翻译:yjl0518 转载请注明出处

Tom McGregor,中国中央电视台全景网评论员兼编辑,从2010年开始在中国居住。本合集收集了他的2019年最新回答,可能部分回答会出现在其他quora译文中,但保证为原创翻译。
原创翻译:龙腾网 翻译:yjl0518 转载请注明出处

In spite of China doing a lot to develop Africa, do you think what China is doing in Africa is actually more dangerous than Europe during the Colonial era?


Answered Jun 6


Wow, this might be the most hilarious question on Quora ever. Really, can you just imagine the mind of the person posing the question here?


“It is clear that many of Leopold's officials in the depots up the Congo river terrorised the local inhabitants, forcing them to work under the threat of having their hands and feet - or those of their children - cut off. Women were raped, men were executed and villages were burned in pursuit of profit for the king.


But what has stuck in the gut of Belgian historians is Hochschild's claim that 10 million people may have died in a forgotten holocaust. In outrage, the now ageing Belgian officials who worked in the Congo in later years have taken to the internet with a 10-page message claiming that maybe only half a dozen people had their hands chopped off, and that even that was done by native troops.


They argue that American and British writers have highlighted the Congo to distract attention from the contemporary massacre of the North American indians and the Boer War.”


Yet Belgium to this day, has refused to apologize or dishonor the name of King Leopold II. The Belgium government continues to praise him and local tourism companies have encouraged foreign citizens to visit the Monument to King Leopold II located on Boulevard de Regent in Brussels.


Do you believe it is appropriate for Brussels to commemorate a man, who is believed to have killed or maimed 10 million Africans? Let’s not forget that centuries ago, it was the Portuguese who launched the global slave trade, shipping so many Africans as human cargo to all corners of the globe.


Could anyone make a valid argument that China’s activities in Africa are worse? The Chinese government and its citizens and companies have not spread a wave of holocausts, terrorism, slavery and outright theft of natural resources in Africa as the Europeans have already done.



How is China able to provide enough food to feed its population of over 1 billion people? Do they import food or are they self-sustainable?


Answered May 9


Additionally, migrants could bring back their personal savings and return home with sufficient funds to launch businesses in the local communities. Young Chinese are adapting to new technologies and are embracing innovations as many of them have returned to their farms.


Young Chinese farming families have launched new Apps and are livestreaming videos , while utilizing blockchain technologies to sell their agricultural goods direct to consumers’ homes. Hence, a Chinese pig farmer can produce livestreaming videos to encourage viewers to purchase pork from him.


Beijing has also supported Internet Plus farming, which I had written about in a commentary composed for CNA.


“The Chinese government is encouraging a “Internet Plus Agriculture” model to promote integrated rural development and bring farmers more business opportunities to increase their income and energise rural revitalisation. Since last year, President Xi has stressed agriculture’s need to embrace mechanisation and automation, as well as the employment of e-commerce to tap unmet demand.


Authorities are also looking at helping farmers adopt digital technologies to aid with farmland management, pest control and production. Tracking sensors, big data and drones are increasingly employed to enhance efficiency.


There are also efforts to develop cold chain logistics and e-commerce platforms, as well as supporting facilities that process, pack, store and preserve farm produce.


The hope is that this boost in agriculture will provide a new engine of growth for China. These efforts are seeing early first fruits, as online sales of agricultural products have reached 300 billion yuan and seen the creation of 29 million job in 2018.”


By welcoming new innovations for China’s agricultural sector, we can see that Chinese farmers can produce more goods direct to the market and earn higher incomes in doing so, which boosts their living standards as well.


In prior decades, many young Chinese people from rural communities were anxious to migrate to urban zones, but their city dreams had often turned into tragic tales. Fortunately, they had their hometowns to return too and they could start life all over again.


That’s good news for Chinese farm families, while helping to increase the food supply in the nation.



Why is the world afraid of China?


Answered May 8


Therefore when anti-China conspiracies go viral on Social Media, picked up by Western media outlets, while politicians and thought leaders claim they’re true, you run into a scenario where many people start to believe that. They are more susceptible to accept such falsehoods as truth if they had little knowledge of China beforehand.


And that’s why many people are afraid of China. They believe in the nonsense tales that other people are telling them.

这就是为什么很多人害怕中国。 他们相信别人告诉他们的无稽之谈。


How is Singapore responding to China’s One belt one road initiative and Marine time Silk road?


Answered May 5


Very easy question to answer here. Singapore’s Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong had accepted an invitation to attend the 2nd Belt & Road (B&R) Forum held in Beijing last month. Why would he go as a representative of the City-State unless he supported it? He didn’t arrive to act like the ‘resistance’ during his attendance there.


The leadership of Singapore is considered stable and its government focuses on promoting dialogue and diplomacy in the Asia-Pacific region. Due to its small size in land territory, but abundance of prosperity as a international trade and investments hub, Singapore benefits more from peace, not war.


Political, social and economic stability among Asian nations can boost the prospects of the City-state. Hence, PM Lee recognizes the glorious opportunities that Singapore can tap into by embracing China’s B&R. Chinese President Xi believes the B&R can serve as great connector for Asia, Africa, Oceania, the Middle East and Europe.

亚洲国家的政治、社会和经济稳定,可以提振这个城市国家的前景。 因此,李总理认识到了新加坡可以通过拥护中国的一带一路倡议来利用这一光荣机遇。中国认为,一带一路倡议可以成为亚洲、非洲、大洋洲、中东和欧洲的伟大联系纽带。

China’s New Silk Road aims to work with participating member states to embark on constructing vital infrastructure, such as more roads, bridges and railways, along with building more hubs for energy, manufacturing and logistics, in order to increase cross-border trade and investments.


Accordingly, Singapore and especially Singaporean companies and investors can play a crucial role as they are recognized for their expertise in the services, finance, architecture, consultancy, hi-tech & sciences, ecological and construction sectors.


Reportedly, numerous deals were signed at the B&R Forum, estimated to be valued at over US$64 billion. Since PM was in attendance, he could help Singaporean firms partake in the money flows. So we should not be surprised that Singapore had reaffirmed its strong ties to Beijing in recent days.


We can read more about it from an article posted by Today.


As reported by Today:


The Singaporean ambassador believes even brighter days are ahead, since his nation lays claim as a premier hub for trade and investments in the Southeast Asia region. Singapore has maximized its benefits by joining China to spur more enhanced free trade agreements (FTAs) in bilateral and multi-nation deals.”


Consequently, the future looks bright on the horizon for bilateral ties between Beijing and Singapore.



Why is Amazon pulling out of China?


Answered Apr 29


The e-commerce giant Amazon has a very good understanding on the know how for doing business in North America, but senior executives had little comprehension of China’s market and had over-estimated their capabilities to challenge Chinese rivals, Alibaba Group and


China’s e-commerce market stands tall as the world’s largest, but Alibaba and JD have basically locked up nearly all Chinese e-retailers and shoppers. Amazon had nothing special to offer China as an alternative.


Amazon got suckered into China by relying on over-priced and elitist business consultants who advised them to ‘Go Big’ in China, since e-commerce sales have continued to increase by double-digits in the country. Consultants don’t lose money for supporting bad business ideas and they do get paid higher fees, if a company says yes to a project.


Hence, consultants have little financial incentive to inform their clients that they should not make an investment into a project no matter how foolish it sounds and that appears to be what had happened to Amazon. The company’s CEO Jeff Bezos, in his arrogance, who announced that he wanted to enter the China market, so consultants and his corporate team rushed in as “yes” men without taking into consideration, clear warning signs.


Just like it would be nonsensical for Alibaba founder, Jack Ma to think he could get Tabao to surpass Amazon in the North American market, Bezos had no chance of overcoming both Alibaba and in China. People call that a fool’s errand.


So when I first heard that Amazon was coming to China, I asked myself, How long before they close shop and leave? And now I got the answer to that all-important question. Amazon had fallen for the “Coca Cola in China” theory.


He just likes routine. He wakes up Saturday morning and he tells me it’s time to go to McDonald’s and will always order the same food. I’m the same, but the point of the story is that to succeed in China as a business you have to establish customer and brand loyalty. That doesn’t happen overnight and McDonald’s had rocky times in the country as well, but they stayed in China, despite the odds.


You can read an article from Eater to get a better understanding on how McDonald’s has succeeded here:


Why China Loves American Chain Restaurants So Much


According to Eater:


“Adapting to local tastes has been integral to the success for American brands, but the embrace of American chains in China goes far deeper than just good food.


Amazon made two big mistakes in China. They arrived unfamiliar with the local markets and they left too early. Had they remained persistent, the Chinese would admire that and eventually they could have turned it around.



Is it true that in the Chinese culture, children's happiness is irrelevant, and kids are supposed to obey parents and follow their plans in shaping family image?


Answered Apr 28


To a certain extent, I would agree that this is true, but it’s no different than many wealthy and ambitious families in the West who set high expectations for their children. I recall growing up in a conservative Catholic family and attending Catholic schools for most of my academic career.


Hence, the so-called “Harvard Dream” was part of the culture I had grown up in, meaning that young students were expected to study hard so they could get accepted into an Ivy League school or any other prestigious university. Of course, such goals seemed to contradict the principles of conservative Catholic values, since the campuses there were also a hotbed for the far-Leftist, PC (politically correct), and the ‘social justice warrior’ mentality.


Glory-seeking parents were blinded by an “Ivy League” obsession for their children, and those schools could exploit that, by receiving large donations for their respective endowment funds. They could spike tuition rates and gullible parents just spent large sums so their children could study there.


So with that being said, one could say the Chinese, as well as many other Asian families, have fallen for the “Harvard Dream” trap as well. And it’s my personal opinion that they are chasing after the wrong goals.


Although I would agree that parents encouraging their children to become more studious, hard working and and self-disciplined remain fundamental to raise good character in children, parents should be more pragmatic in spirit and open-minded in their hearts.


I’ve met so many unhappy young people in Asia, who had to abandon their lifelong dreams in order to to follow their family’s wishes to get a Master’s in Business Administration. For whatever reason, many Chinese parents demand their children study this subject even if the children show absolutely no academic curiosity in this subject matter.


I recall one young woman, who volunteered at the Shanghai Jewish Refugees Museum. When chatting with her she was so eager to speak about the museum’s history and discuss the Jewish influence in the country. But later she revealed that her parents forced her to study Business Administration and when I asked what she thought about this subject, she went strangely silent and could not think of anything positive to say about it.


I mention this incident, without revealing the woman’s name, to explain why parents are mistaken by acting too controlling over their children’s lives and future careers. They should take a closer look at their children, observe their strengths and weaknesses and communicate with them better. There’s nothing wrong if a child does not want to study Business Administration.


Parents should focus on teaching their children how to be productive members to society, to be honest, have good morals and be respected by the community at large, which can make them truly happy. If your son or daughter has a dream to become a museum curator, you should encourage, not discourage them.

父母应该把重点放在教育他们的孩子如何成为对社会有用的成员,如何做一个诚实的人,如何拥有良好的道德品质,如何受到整个社会的尊重,这样才能使他们真正快乐。 如果你的儿子或女儿有成为博物馆馆长的梦想,你应该鼓励他们,而不是阻止他们。

Answered Apr 26


Very simple, if you are a Canadian citizen and had committed a capital crime within the territory and jurisdiction of the People’s Republic of China and you had been taken into custody, charged and found guilty of a capital offense than you can receive the death penalty in the country.


Not sure why the question was asked on Quora. Obviously, if you break the law in the country, you are liable for punishment in accordance with Chinese law. Are we to imply that Canadians deserve “Canuck Privilege?” It’s philosophically wrong for Canadian criminals in China to receive more lenient punishment, while all others can not receive such preferential treatment.


Beijing is fully aware of that and had ensured fairness in its judicial system. Whether you are a Chinese citizen or Canadian you can be executed for committing capital crimes here. Chinese judges will not surrender to “Canuck Privilege” under any circumstances.


A few months ago, I had written a commentary on a related topic for CNA.


As reported by CNA:


“Canadians are learning some hard life lessons that Justin-Trudeau values do not have much traction beyond the nation’s borders, especially in Asia, where countries on the continent take a very harsh stance on illicit drugs.


Canadian citizen Robert Lloyd Schellenberg was arrested in 2014 for allegedly smuggling 222kg of methamphetamine. In a prior trial, he claimed innocence and alleged that he was frxd by a former friend, Xu Qing, a Chinese native, but was convicted and sentenced to 15 years in prison.


Now a Chinese court has sentenced him to death after his prison sentence was deemed too lenient, sparking accusations of China engaging in diplomatic retaliation, amid discussions that this move was somehow lixed to Canada’s arrest of Huawei’s chief financial officer Meng Wanzhou.”


Apparently, Justin Trudeau has expressed much displeasure at failing to provide “Canuck Privilege” to one of his fellow Canadians in Canada. But Schellenberg had moved to China, knowing full well that the Chinese judicial system imposes harsh punishments on drug dealers.


He had a prior criminal history when living in Canada, placed under arrest in British Columbia for illicit drug possessions. The man had proclaimed his innocence when caught by Chinese police. But cops had found over 222kg of methamphetamine on him.



Will China and America ever be on good terms?


Answered Apr 25


Yes of course and as a proud US citizen who has lived and worked in Beijing since 2010, I can say so from sincerity. The biggest obstacles to improving bilateral relations between Beijing and Washington do stem from misunderstandings and the lack of awareness on cultural differences and how that can impact communications between both sides.

是的,当然,作为一个自豪的美国公民,自2010年以来一直在北京生活和工作,我可以真诚地这样说。 改善中美双边关系的最大障碍,确实来自于误解,以及对文化差异及其如何影响双方交流的认识上的不足。

China struggles with a serious image problem as many Westerners still believe that the Chinese government holds globalist domination ambitions. Meanwhile, many Chinese view Americans as cultural imperialists bent on imposing PC (politically correct) one-world democracy order on all sovereign nations.


In other words, many ordinary Americans believe that sooner or later China is preparing for an imminent invasion against them, while a high number of regular Chinese express fears that the US government seeks to make war on them as well. But if that were true, why wait?


Accordingly, both Americans and the Chinese must seek new methods to improve communications so that they recognize that neither side wishes for war. Americans should show more open-mindedness and tolerance when meeting people they don’t normally agree with, while the Chinese should overcome their tendency to act suspicious towards strangers and outsiders.


Let’s forget about the Western media as they are a lost cause in the hopes of delivering a message of peace for our world. Just as the mainstream media (MSM) is so cranky about US President Trump, they are equally fervent in posting nonsense about China and Russia. The MSM wants to be the resistance against worldwide peace and prosperity and they have no intention of changing their manners.


Hence, the better solution is for ordinary people from the US and China to make efforts to dialogue with each other on a personal level. Are you an American who has many questions about China, well go talk to a Chinese person and ask them and the curious Chinese should do vice versa with their American peers.


I’ve gotten so accustomed to life in China that when I meet an American who is new to the country, I get annoyed if they gossip, smile, tell jokes too much, or act visibly emotional. I even ask myself, “Are they crazy?” But when I first came to China I was same as them so I’m more patient and when the Chinese ask me about those folks, I tell them that if they stay in China for the long-term, they will change for the better just like I did.


I mention this perspective because by opening doors to cultural exchanges we can get a better understanding of our world and that can promote peace and prosperity for all.


Additionally, if the Chinese do visit America, I advise them to go to places such as Texas to learn more about the country. I had written about my trip to Texas a few years ago.


“Returning to Texas served as a reminder that many Americans continue to look inward and remain unfamiliar in regards to other nations.


To discuss matters on China you should keep it simple and try to connect it with Americanized topics. It’s essential since China hopes to gain greater recognition, so global citizens can see the Asian powerhouse nation in a more positive light.


When asking Texans what they knew about China they often used buzz phrases, such as: pandas, the Great Wall, ‘Made in China,’ and kung fu.’”


So as we can see for ourselves, we have a long way to go to bridge the gaps of misunderstandings between the good people of the US and China, but it will be well worth the effort.



How will China address claims that other countries will face a 'debt trap' if they sign on to the Belt and Road Initiative?


Answered Apr 24


A developing nation can only succeed by entering the stages of industrialization, urbanization and modernization, but they can’t do so by themselves. They require assistance and other countries and finance mechanisms should step up to deliver on building new infrastructure, especially roads and bridges for them.

一个发展中国家只有进入工业化、城市化和现代化的阶段才能取得成功,但它们自身不可能取得成功。 它们需要援助,其他国家和金融机制应加紧努力,为它们建设新的基础设施,特别是道路和桥梁。

But let’s say the African nation of Zambia calls the World Bank (WB) or the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to request a loan to build a bridge nearby a local farming village. Local officials must negotiate a long and drawn-out process just to submit an application. Afterwards, the local government must pay the WB or IMF to conduct an ‘Environmental Impact’ report, which takes about 7-10 years before completion. They must pledge not to harm the habitat of animal species in the surrounding regions and follow strict regulations on labor conditions too.

但是,让我们假设非洲国家赞比亚打电话给世界银行或国际货币基金组织,请求贷款在当地农村附近建造一座桥梁。地方官员只要提交申请,就必须经过漫长的谈判过程。 然后,当地政府必须向世界银行或国际货币基金组织支付费用,以进行一项“环境影响”报告,该报告大约需要7-10年的时间才能完成。他们必须保证不损害周边地区动物物种的栖息地,并且遵守严格的劳动条件规定。

In other words, applying for a loan from the WB or IMF just to construct a bridge may cause more harm than good, especially if the application gets rejected even after local officials paid millions of US dollars to WB or IMF experts to conduct their assessment studies and reports. They don’t get refunds. Does that sound fair to the good people of Zambia? Well, I think not.


Hence, Beijing offers a more pragmatic approach for developing nations to build vital infrastructure for their markets. By signing up for the B&R they become partners to the AIIB. Accordingly, they can apply for financing, but if they lack expertise, equipment and know-how, they can work with Chinese companies to turn their ideas into concrete plans and actions.


Perhaps developing countries are taking some risks but if they want more roads and railroads they cannot do it alone, while Western governments have failed to provide the necessary assistance. Beijing and Chinese firms are assuming risks as well. It’s more convenient and lucrative for the countries to pay back scheduled loan payments rather than go into default.


Should defaults happen, Beijing and Chinese companies have just lost huge sums of cash and they can’t recover it, so to get any return on investment they must take measures, such as accepting land, assets and equipment as re-payments. And if governments are involved, Chinese businesses deserve the rights to receive preferential tax treatments to keep the infrastructure operational.


The B&R is not a charity organization and should not be considered as such. Chinese President Xi Jinping has pledge to invest over US$1 trillion into it and you can’t expect Beijing to assume they don’t care if the money delivered as loans never gets paid back.


Nonetheless, developing nations should have ways to resolve debt issues and that’s exactly what Beijing is doing now. Creating debt messes only causes more chaos and so Chinese governments do not gain extra benefits from ‘debt trap diplomacy.’


The Global Times had published a compelling commentary to address the ‘debt trap’ narrative


According to the Global Times:


“In Ethiopia, a new Chinese-built and funded terminal at its capital airport was inaugurated in January this year with an annual capacity to serve about 22 million passengers. It tripled the airport's capacity, contributing to Ethiopia's efforts to become a key aviation hub of the African continent.


In Kenya, the Chinese-built and funded Nairobi-Mombasa railway has ferried more than 2.5 million passengers and nearly 3.9 million tons of cargo since its launch in May 2017. In his State of the Nation Address on April 4, Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta praised the grand project, saying it has been listed among the top 13 most magnificent railway tours for 2019.”


Therefore, let the facts and evidence speak for themselves; don’t worry about the skeptics who are just making noise. The B&R can be a game changer to help poor nations to embark on the path to prosperity.



Can Vietnam compete with Chinese Manufacturing as their labour cost are much lower?


Answered Apr 22


The telecom equipment giant and mobile devices maker, Shenzhen-based Huawei Corp., is recognized as one of the global leaders in the 5G field. I had written about it in a commentary posted by CNA.

总部位于深圳的电信设备巨头和移动设备制造商华为公司被认为是5G 领域的全球领导者之一。我曾在中央通讯社发表的一篇评论中写过这个问题。

As reported by CNA:


“Take manufacturing for instance. Developers of AI can boost the speeds at which machine learning and deep learning occur. Automated factories and logistics can decrease productions costs in the long term while ensuring much higher production levels and faster deliveries.


Many companies all over the world are playing crucial roles in integrating 5G technologies into the backbone of economies - including German-based robotics manufacturer Kuka, mobile services provider Ericsson, the South Korean smartphone maker Samsung along with many others.


But for the time being, Huawei and a few other Chinese high-tech firms are leading the pack in 5G.”


Hence, low labor costs or even cheap land prices will not be the game changer for the future manufacturing industry. Instead, high-efficient factories with good infrastructure in the surrounding region will be much more important. Stream-lined logistics, perhaps with self-driving trucks delivering products to fully-automated ports can lead the way.


Apparently, Xiamen is already re-adapting its port to go automated. Let’s take a closer look with an article posted by 央视网_世界就在眼前.


According to 根据央视网_世界就在眼前:

“Xiamen's Yuanhai Terminal is China's first fully-automated shipping terminal, which has robots and Internet-controlled equipment to transfer loads on or off cargo ships.


"The Yuanhai Terminal is an intelligent, safe and environment-friendly facility," said Chen Yipeng, deputy general manager of Xiamen Yuanhai Container Terminal Co.


He added, "Most of the terminal's functions are performed by automated machines controlled by computers in a central control room. Since the terminal was put into operation in March 2016, it has maintained a clean safety record."


He pointed out remarkable improvements in the number of shipping containers handled, work efficiency and economic benefits.”


Nevertheless, there are still plenty of business opportunities in Vietnam, since the country has a long coastline and areas for upgrading deep sea ports. But Hanoi has chosen the path of resistance and imposed a number of barriers on Chinese companies hoping to do more business there.


The Vietnamese government should find resolution on such matters in order to attract more foreign direct investments (FDI) from China. The Vietnamese might think they are playing it smart to attempt to surpass their neighboring rival and their gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate reaching 7% last year is a good sign, but they need to achieve economic growth in the double-digits on a consistent basis if they believe they can do better than China in the long-term.


Perhaps Vietnamese firms think countries outside of China can spark boom times for the country, but whether they like it or not, to ignore China will not provide them with sustainable development. How can American companies spend more on investments in Vietnam than the Chinese do? That’s impossible.

也许越南公司认为中国以外的国家可以为这个国家带来繁荣,但是不管他们喜欢与否,忽视中国不会给他们带来可持续发展。美国公司在越南的投资怎么会比中国公司多呢? 这不可能。

Besides can Washington be trusted as a reliable partner for Hanoi? The US government demands democracy and Vietnam has no interest in such notions for the time being. They are simply being used as proxy agents to annoy Beijing. And if Vietnam is not careful, they could turn into a mere puppet state doing the bidding of their new masters from Brussels and Washington.


The Vietnamese are filled with pride and patriotism so it’s doubtful they can act subservient to Western powers, but they should show some humility with a willingness for deeper economic cooperation with China to boost their manufacturing sector and embrace automation in the new era.